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|Bins||Stellar mass or redshift intervals used to divide galaxies into sub-populations for stacking analysis.||S2.1|
|Layer||A subset of a real/mock sky image (or map) attributed to only the sources in the corresponding stellar mass or redshift bin.||S2.1, S2.2|
|Scatter||In this paper, we exclusively define "scatter" as the standard deviation of flux density or luminosity in the source population, which is characterized and represented by σS in Equation (4).||S2, Appendix A, Equation (4)|
|(Un)perturbed||Fluxes being assigned to the sources in a specific layer are drawn from a distribution with the mean equal to the best-fit value given by SIMSTACK and some (zero) nonzero width defined by the scatter.||S2.2, Appendix A, Equation (4)|
|Real/Mock||"Real" refers to the actual sky image, whereas "mock" refers to the image reconstructed using source locations and perturbed mean fluxes from SIMSTACK. More specifically, in our analysis we construct the mock sky image by merging (1) a layer of interest perturbed according to a distribution with a tunable scatter and (2) background layers perturbed by a distribution with a fiducial scatter of 0.3 dex.||S2.2, Equations (5), (6)|
|Base||The "base" map, different from the mock image, is obtained by merging (1) an unperturbed layer of interest and (2) background layers perturbed by a distribution with a fiducial scatter of 0.3 dex.||S2.2, Equations (5), (6)|
|Residual||The difference between the real or noise-added mock sky image and a "base" one.||S2.2, Equations (5), (6)|
|,||A small cutout image a few pixels by side, where each pixel measures the standard deviation of a data cube obtained by thumbnail-stacking the residual map at the positions of the sources in each i, j layer.||S2.2, Equations (5), (6)|
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